With the hay fields completed I spent some time going back over the base static grass layer.   The base layer was intentionally quite brown as it was to form a basic dry grass texture over which a more vivid green top coat would be applied

I spent a lot of time looking for the right shade of static flock for the top coat and in the end I went with Woodland Scenics Medium green (FS614) 2mm fibers and (to a lesser extent) FS618 4mm fibers.    These are not the fibers that come in the large plastic dispensers but rather smaller bags as shown below

https://woodpeckermodelrailways.com.au/product/woodland-scenics-fs614-2mm-static-grass-medium-green/

For the top coat I used cheap hairspray as the adhesive.  I had read about this in various sources and decided to give it a go.   Unscented maximum hold hairspray is (obviously) the best choice.   It allows for multiple layers of static grass fibers to be built up and firmly attached all fibers to the base grass layer.    Only tip would be to mask off track and roads first because any stray hairspray in the wrong place that gets some fibers on it will be very hard to clean off once dry.

I did try 4mm fibers in some low lying areas but in the end found them a bit too long for N Scale and you can get a more subtle variation in height by just applying extra layers of 2mm fibers over the first application.

I allowed some of the base brown grass texture to show through and used the general rule that low lying spots, embankments and the borders of the hay fields would be greener than other areas.

An added bonus is that the foreground grass colour blends perfectly with the painted green fields on the backdrop.  This was entirely accidental and I am not sure I could have achieved such a good match if I had tried.  The overall feel i am aiming for is late summer so there is a case for dialing down the greenness in certain areas with a dusting of browns and straw colours.  The advantage of the hairspray approach is that it is very easy to control grass colour with additional layering where needed.

The scenery is now at what I call the ‘presentable’ stage in that to the casual observer the layout looks quite ‘finished’.   Obviously there are lots more scenic details to add but I will spend the next few months attending to some more motive power and rolling stock projects.

Scenery – Hay Bales

June 4, 2020

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Hay bales dotting the harvested fields in the completed scene.  The green static grass top layer is a new addition that will be detailed in the next post.

The previous post detailed the methods used to create the harvested field scene in the corner of the layout.   This post details how several dozen hay bales were made.

The techniques used are virtually identical to those outlined in this video by Luke Towan

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ky39Y1P02A4

Luke’s video is for HO scale bales so obviously I did things differently for N scale.   Apart from scale the main difference is that I used strips of masking tape to make the bales, whereas the video shows clear tape being used.   I also added a pinch of static grass to my texture whereas Luke uses only jute twine fibers.

My steps for N scale hay bales are as follows:

  1.  Cut a 6 inch length of masking tape.   I used a 1.5 inch wide beige masking tape.  1.5 inch wide tape will yield three hay bales
  2. Mount the tape on a cutting mat sticky side up.  Secure ends with tape (sticky side down obviously).  Make sure you have 6 inches of tape between the two mounting pieces.
  3. Mark 3 lines along the tape at 3/8ths inch spacing and then use a sharp hobby knife to cut along the lines.  This is tricky because you are attempting to draw and cut on the sticky tape surface.  When completed it should look as below.  You can discard the excess strip of tape along the bottom.20200517_113102
  4. The hay bale texture is a mix of finely chopped jute twine fibre with a pinch of static grass.   Any jute twine will do but it has to be chopped very finely using sharp scissors and this is a rather tedious process.   Half and hour of chopping very fine off cuts (no more than a mm or two in length) should yield a big enough pile of material for a dozen or so hay bales.   Store the fibers in any storage container.
  5. The jute twine fibers are dropped on to the tape using a dabbing action, attempting to get a nice even coverage.   To lighten the colour a little I also dabbed on a pinch of Woodland Scenics ‘straw’ static grass fibers.   Use a roller or any circular object to press the material into the tape.
  6. Now carefully cut along one end of the tape and lift the first strip off the cutting mat.  Lifting with tweazers while separating with a scalpel works best. Cut the other end of the tape to release it.   Turn strip upside down and shake any excess fibres back into the storage container.
  7. Take a fine pair of tweezers and start rolling the tape.  After about 5 turns, extricate the tweezers (this is actually the hardest part of the whole process as they really don’t want to come out!) then continue rolling manually.    Once you have about half the length rolled, apply a light coating of PVA glue along the remaining tape backing and then roll up the remainder.  A final dab of PVA will seal the end, although you will need to hold the end in place for a few seconds for it to take hold.

    They key to a nice tight hay bale is to pull the tape away from the bale as you are rolling it in.  This creates a nice tight wrap and ensures that all bales are the same diameter.

  8. Repeat rolling and gluing process with the other two strips of tape.   Each strip of tape will yield 3 bales.  After that simply cut another 6 inch length of tape and start the process again.   It is quite time consuming but also strangely relaxing and the perfect task to do while watching TV.  It took me a couple of weeks of 1 hour work sessions to get all the hay bales I needed (which admittedly is quite a few).
  9. I secured the hay bales to the field with a small dab of PVA glue.   I applied a bit of downward pressure to make sure the bales sat firmly in the field.
  10. There was no magic calculation used to space the hay bales on my fields.  I didn’t want a scattering of sparse bales so I went for a fairly dense coverage spaced 6 inches apart.  This was more about creating a scene that looked visually interesting and photographs well rather than recreating the prototypical spacing of hay bales.

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Next post will detail the application of a green static grass top coat that really brought the scenery to life.

One of the side effects of using rectangular hollow core doors for benchwork and following a prototype trackplan is that I ended up with a vast expanse of foreground benchwork at the east end of the layout where the line heads south towards Taylor.  Rather than leaving this as dead space or shoehorning in an unprototypical track arrangement I wanted to use it to create a real scenic statement piece.

Many of the most iconic railway photographs of the prototype in this region are of two-tone green BCR locomotives framed by late summer fields dotted with round hay bales.    I decided that this large foreground area would be a perfect place to recreate these scenes.  I created two separate hay fields, one each side of a road.  Both were populated with hand made N scale hay bales which I will describe in the next post.

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Base hay fields largely complete and mass production of hay bales in progress.

There are numerous photos of hay fields online and while there is a large variety in appearance (largely due to regional differences), the key effect is generally a straw coloured harvested field which contains evidence of harvesting and bailing in the form of tracks and ‘lanes’ (similar to the stripe effect on a freshly cut lawn).   I assembled a collection of photos and went for a general look and feel that just looked “right” in my eyes.

My steps for the hay fields were as follows

Step 1. Base Ground Texture

The field surface (like the rest of the basic scenery) is Sculptamold over plaster bandages. First, I painted the Sculptamold with a base colour (very pale beige in my case). While paint was still wet, I sifted some beige / grey sanded tile grout (a 75% to 25% ratio) over the surface. This was followed with a sifting of Scenic Express “Desert Dust Fine”  to blend everything together. Coverage of base paint with these textures should be about 80% (i.e some paint will still show through) Then I followed up with a dusting of some Woodland Scenics Fine Turf ‘Burnt Grass’  (T44) over the base ground cover texture.

After allowing the paint to dry overnight I then used a small roller to to compress the texture into the terrain and vacuumed off any excess.

Step 2.  Base Field Texture

The base field texture aims to give the look of a harvested field.   Static grass is used from an electrostatic applicator but it is not essential that all the grass fibers stand upright.

I applied Woodland Scenics Scenery Cement to the surface using a pipette to flood the surface.  I then used an electrostatic applicator to apply the following base static grass mix.

6 parts Woodland Scenics straw static grass (FS616 2mm)
1 parts Woodland Scenic burnt grass static grass (FL633)
1 parts Woodland Scenic light green static grass (FL634)

A good full coverage was aimed for but I tried to avoid multiple passes that would have added excessive height to the grass effect.   Once thoroughly dry the excess was vacuumed off.

Step 3. Simulate Harvesting Patterns

I used a fine pencil to scribe harvesting / bailing marks in . The harvesting pattern is a series of ‘tracks’  0.5 inches wide and is separated by a 0.5 inch gap.  This is slightly wider than a standard 5ft wide bale (0.375 inch in N Scale). I marked a series of points 0.5 inch apart and traced a series of straight lines separated by 0.5 inch across the field. At the top I traced around a cap or circle of appropriate diameter to get the outside turnback curve. and hand traced in the inside curve. This process was repeated until entire field is covered.   I also marked out some tracks around the perimeter of the field also.

The tracks that have been just marked out represent the lanes where the hay bales will go. Their texture can be left as is but the lanes each side of them need to be treated with an application of Woodland Scenics ‘straw’ static grass (FS616 2mm) to create the distinctive striped effect.

With a small paint brush I carefully painted on Woodland Scenics scenery cement to all areas of the field outside the hay bale tracks as shown below.  It is best to do a small area at a time.

 

Scenic Cement is painted around the hay bale ‘lanes’ in preparation for application of straw coloured static grass.

Straw static grass was then liberally applied to the area with the electrostatic applicator.  When glue was fully dried I vacuumed off the area.  You will see a nice subtle striped pattern with the hay bale lanes being a flattened light brown colour bounded on each side by slightly brighter and higher straw textures.

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This treatment will largely cover up the pencil marks from the previous stages. I found that gently tracing over these lane boundaries with a soft pencil again adds a bit of contrast and depth back to the texture, but this is optional and is largely covered up by the following step.

Step 4.  Final Details

To make the fields really pop required one last tedious step. Using a very fine brush I painted slightly thinned white glue over the lines just marked.  These lines should be no more than a couple of mm wide.  A dusting of WS burnt grass static flock (FL633) was applied along these glue lines using the electrostatic applicator.

When dry and vacuumed off, thin lines of brown static grass will remain along the side of the harvested lanes.  This really sets off the field and look like lines of hay trailing each side of the hay bales which are of a similar colour.

Completed hay fields (minus hay bales).

That is how the basic striped hay field was made.  In the next post I describe how to make N scale hay bales.

I wanted to get a basic level of scenery on the layout before moving back on to some rolling stock projects over the NZ winter. Application of a base static grass layer really brings the layout to life.    The prototype area is mostly croplands and grass so even a relatively basic grass cover really helps to capture the feel of the wide open spaces in northeastern BC.

For the base grass layer I used Woodland Scenics 2mm static flock fibres applied via a  home made electrostatic applicator built from an electric fly swatter.   The base mix is 2 parts Wild Honey to 1 part Burnt Grass.    This was applied over a PVA glue base which was stippled over the terrain base with a small sponge.

PVA glue is thicker and stickier than Woodland Scenics scenic cement and this seems to help the grass fibres stand up a bit better.   I added a layer of Woodland Scenics light green static fibres before the glue dried to add a bit of colour variation to the base grass.

I let the glue dry for 24 hours and then vacuumed up the excess grass fibres.  On some of the industrial sidings and lesser used track I applied glue in and around the ties to create the effect of grass overgrowth along the right of way.

The effect of rough gravel roads was achieved by carefully applying a small line of PVA glue down the middle of the road and also carefully along the road shoulders to give a nice defined edge.  It’s a bit tricky to get right and often requires some additional touch up rounds but on completion the effect looks very pleasing.

The completed base grass layer is still quite brown, which is fine for a late summer look, but more colour will be added with additional static flock layering at a later stage, along with various bushes, shrubs and small trees.

For now, the combination of a completed backdrop, ballasted track, ground textures and static grass will make a great stage for taking photos of the various locomotive and rolling stock projects planned over the winter months.

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The next layer of scenery after the base texture layer and track ballast are the various gravel lots and network of rough gravel roads in and around the yard.  Gravel lots include future sites for industrial buildings, the station building, freight house and parking areas.  Gravel roads are mostly single lane rough tracks used for access within the yard area.

Tile grout was again used for this scenery layer.   For roads and lots, a base layer of buff coloured grout is applied first and then a lighter mix of 50/50 buff and grey is sifted on top.   After misting with alcohol or water with a drop of detergent, the entire area is soaked with scenic cement.  When thoroughly dry, tire tracks are scratched in along the gravel roads with the handle end of a small paint brush.

The roads were finished first and then the remainder of the gravel lots were created around them using the same approach.  In areas of secondary siding trackage the tile grout blend was lightly sifted over the ballasted track to give the appearance of rough siding track on dirt or very light ballast.   This effect can be seen in the images below on the two elevator tracks along the front of the layout as well as the two freight house tracks and the industrial spurs at the far end.

The final step is to apply some of the grey tile grout in patches to simulate damp or wet areas.  This is a really nice effect that adds atmosphere to an otherwise rather uniform gravel surface.   For roads i apply it in low lying dips to simulate muddy ruts.   I also added a drop of liquid floor polish to seal these areas.  It doesn’t add the glossy wet sheen i had hoped for when it dries (a gloss gel would be a good option for that) but it does help fix the final layer nicely.  Photos below show the floor polish freshly applied and still wet.

 

 

 

Scenery: Ballasting

April 2, 2020

Following the completion of the base texture layer the next step was track ballasting.  I used Woodland Scenics fine grey ballast.   Other options are of course available, but in New Zealand we often have to default to what we can buy locally and Woodland Scenics products are generally widely available in Auckland’s few hobby shops.

Ballasting was done in the standard way (there is no shortage of articles and online content describing how to do it).  I basically used a small teaspoon to apply the dry ballast and fine soft paint brushes to position it in place.    Extra care has to be taken around turnouts of course and it is better to slightly under-ballast turnouts just to be safe.

After carefully sweeping any rogue grains of ballast off the side of the rails and tops of ties, a small perfume mister was used to apply a mist of 70% rubbing alcohol to the ballast.  This breaks the surface tension for the final glue application.   Woodland Scenics Scenic cement was then applied with a small eye dropper. The alcohol allows the glue to flood through the individual grains rapidly with minimal disturbance to their position.

In progress and completed ballasting work.  It’s not particularly difficult but it does require a lot of patience.  I found doing a set length of track (12 inches) every day was the best approach to avoid frustration.

Ballasted section of the yard.  Taking extra time to remove odd stray grains of ballast from rail sides and ties really pays off

When the glue has thoroughly dried (I allowed 48 hours) I went over all the ballasted sections and removed the inevitable odd grains of ballast that had shifted during the application of the glue.   A small flat head screw driver worked well for removing grains stuck to the side of rails and tops of ties.     Although a bit tedious, I found taking the time to do this step dramatically improved the appearance of ballast (especially in photos).

While I was tidying up the ballast I also took the time to touch up a few ends of ties that had been stained white by Scultpamold using cheap black craft paint.   The final steps were to give the track a good vacuum, check all points moved freely and then clean the rail heads.

Scenery: Base Texture

March 31, 2020

Over the last couple of months I have been slowly working on the base scenery treatment for the layout (texture, ballast and grasses).   The first step was to apply a basic ground texture layer which is described here.

Although Fort St John yard is quite flat (in real life as well as model form) there are some natural terrain variations. I built up the track above grade on cork floor tile and foam road bed in order to simulate some below grade variations such as ponds, ditches and culverts.    Sculptamold was applied to smooth these small terrain features and this was painted with a light grey paint.

Base texture application at various locations on the layout (Hay field test area will be described in a future post).

With the paint still wet i sifted on a base texture layer of sanded tile grout.  I used a medium grey and buff mix in about a 70/30% ratio aiming for about 80% coverage over the paint layer.   A very light dusting of Scenic Express ‘Desert Dust’ fine ground foam was then sifted over the tile grout.   When the paint had dried a small roller was used to compress the texture into the surface.   In trafficked areas a nice effect can be made my running fingers up and down through the applied texture to compress and smooth it out even more.

Scenery Experimentation

January 25, 2020

With summer in full swing in the southern hemisphere I am firmly in ‘dabbling’ mode with the hobby at the moment.    I have been using the corner of the layout where the line leaves the yard to go to staging as a scenery test bed of sorts, just doing an hour here and there trying out some techniques.

There were 4 things I wanted to try,  Gravel roads, dirt/gravel surfaces,  grassy banks and agricultural fields.    The gravel roads and dirt areas were created using various shades of sanded tile grout.   The grassy banks of the embankment on the main line was created using different colours of Woodland scenics static grass.   The agricultural field was created using Woodland Scenics fine turf ground foam over a tile grout soil base into which plough lines had been created using an old comb.

I have re-done a lot of the areas several times and have generally tried not to get too attached to the outcome and just play with different effects.    It is very easy to just scrape off scenery that didn’t work and try again.   An example would be the field, which looks OK, but is possibly a bit green for the late summer look I am going for so I may attempt a late summer hay field instead.   My only tip is to write down in detail the techniques you try so that if you get a result you like, you know exactly how to do it again.

 

 

 

The two Kaslo Shops Cabooses are now complete, just in time for the new year.  This last week saw application of weathering and installation of glazing and couplers.

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Weathering was a simple wash of thinned Tamiya German Grey applied mostly to the yellow areas to tone them down.   Black Bragdon weathering powder was then dusted over the model with heavier applications on trucks and underframe and some subtle vertical streaking applied to the body.     A spray of Dullcote was applied to seal all the weathering before glazing and final assembly.

Glazing was formed from clear plastic (I used an inlay from a Micro Trains freight car box) glued inside the body using CA glue.    I then filled the window openings from the outside with several applications of acrylic floor polish.   I used Pascoes Long Life brand but in North America I would have gone for Future Floor Wax.   The Pascoes polish goes on milky white but dries clear and helps impart a more glass like reflection on the clear plastic glazing.

Microscale short shank body mount couplers were installed using CA glue.   Small mounting screws are provided but they would need to be trimmed to avoid sticking through the floors of the end verandas.   I chose to just glue the couplers in place.   I am aware that brittle CA may not be suitable for holding couplers in place over the long term but we will see.   If not I will use a two-part epoxy for a stronger bond,

It is important to add weight to these models as they are very light.  I added two 1/4 oz peel and stick weights to the car body floor before the cupola and roof sections were glued in place.

Overall I am very happy with the appearance of the final models.    This is not an easy kit to build and I was quite surprised how long they took to complete.   The advantage of operating a small layout is that these two cabooses will be sufficient for most train movements.  I also have a Briggs PGE caboose kit that will provide for some extra trains once it is completed.

For now 1851 and 1886 look very much at home under the wide open skies at Fort St John.

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Largely complete BCR 1851 at Fort St John

Work has continued steadily on the two Kaslo Shops BCR cabooses (or ‘Vans’ as BCR called them).  It has been quite a time consuming build but with painting and decals now complete they are almost finished.  Smoke jacks are not included with the kit so I used Miniatures by Eric CPR Caboose Stack (NS3) which I fortunately had in my parts box.    I imagine it would be possible to scratch build these parts from strip styrene if you were sufficiently patient.

After careful masking, the cabooses were brush painted using True Line Trains BCR/PGE Light Green and Dark Green.  Handrails and end steps were painted in Humbrol enamel yellow,  Window frames were carefully picked out using a Humbrol silver enamel.  Various photos consulted show the window frames to appear as either silver or light green (highly variable by road number and date).  I just think the silver framing looks better so went with that.

Basic painting complete 

Microscale has an excellent decal set for BCR cabooses with the full time span from PGE to BC Rail colour schemes covered (Microscale 60-931).   The white striping was a bit of a challenge especially on the caboose ends and some of the fine car data is incredibly tiny and requires a steady hand and use of a magnifier to place.  I applied a gloss coat before and after applying the decals in order to minimize the appearance of the decal film.

Decals complete (including some tiny car data labels that require a magnifying glass to read)

Road numbers assigned were 1851 and 1866.   1851 was chosen based on a photograph showing that van at Beatton River, a notable north end subdivision division point, in September 1978 (my modelling year).

Next steps are to correct a few fit and finish issues and then apply Dullcoat before and after final weathering. Window glazing needs to be added and the roof sections and cupola need to be glued on permanently.  Weight will need to be added because currently these are extremely lightweight.   Couplers will then be installed and these two vans can be put into service.